adult; no sexual dimorphism (California, USA; 2006-04-15)

Common (Rock or Feral) Pigeon
Columba livia

Native Range: Worldwide

Notes: Wild populations originally inhabited the Mediterranean region, but the species has been introduced worldwide and has established feral populations in towns and cities around the world; many domesticated forms have been artificially selected by breeders to suit many needs; for example, there are racing pigeons, homing pigeons, messenger pigeons, plus many fancy breeds that were established simply for the amusement of their breeders. Charles Darwin famously studied pigeon breeds and drew insights about natural selection from his observations about the power of human mediated artificial selection to cause changes in organismal appearances and behaviors. The crops of both sexes produce a white substance known as "pigeons milk" that the adults regurgitate and feed to their chicks, which are called squabs.

adults in typical 'wild-type' plumage (California, USA; 2008-02-23)

most birds show a white rump in flight (California, USA; 2009-03-28)

strong and fast flyers (California, USA; 2010-04-18)

lovey-dovey (California, USA; 2007-02-19)

amorous couple; note two dark bands on wing (California, USA; 2008-02-23)

adult with squabs (California, USA; 2006-05-27)

domestic pigeon (California, USA; 2007-09-16)

domestic breed (California, USA; 2006-12-31)

domestic white breed (California, USA; 2009-12-06)

knowing where to get a drink (California, USA; 2006-02-11)
in natural rocky-cliff habitat (Luxembourg; 2007-10-17)
posing for a portrait (California, USA; 2007-02-17)

domestic speckled morph (California, USA; 2012-01-17)

domestic pinkish-brown morph (California, USA; 2012-01-17)

domestic dark morph (California, USA; 2012-01-17)

posing for a portrait (California, USA; 2012-01-17)