no sexual dimorphism; yellow rump, vent, tail base (Panama; 2008-05-29)

Yellow-rumped Cacique
Cacicus cela

Native Range: Latin America

Notes: a yellow rump and basal half of the tail give this species its name; caciques (of which there are several species) are similar to oropendolas and likewise build hanging nests, but their nests are shorter and more oblong in comparison to an oprpendola's long conical nests; caciques are also somewhat smaller-bodied than oropendolas.

blue iris; large yellow bill; mostly black body (Panama; 2008-05-29)

large yellow patch on the wing also (Panama; 2008-05-29)