adult; no sexual dimorphism; large subconical bill (Panama; 2008-06-15)

Buff-throated Saltator
Saltator maximus

Native Range: L atin America

Notes: saltators are medium-sized cousins of cardinals and buntings in the family Cardinalidae; they tend to be secretive birds that remaiin hidden in the undergrowth of New World tropical and subtropical forest edges.

dorsal view; olive-yellow upperparts (Panama; 2008-06-15)

ventral view; yellow throat bordered by black (Panama; 2008-06-15)

gray head with a white eyestripe (Panama; 2008-06-15)

yellow vent area; grey lower breast and belly (Panama; 2008-06-15)